Cranial Electrostimulation (CES)

Cranial Electrostimulation (CES)

The Cranial Electrostimulation (CES) therapy involves the application of small pulses of electric current across the head of the patient, usually less than two milliamps (mA). FDA approved CES as a treatment for depression, anxiety and insomnia. CES has been around for some time. This therapy is also referred to as transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), one of the many types of transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). It has been used in clinics in Europe and the United States since 1953, with thousands of patients treated both in clinics and at home.

Comparing to Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

The CES technique is similar to alternative current TENS (Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation) in that both use electro pads or contact points to apply an electric current with a pulsating pattern to the body. The main difference will be the amount of electrical current used. With TENS, the objective is to apply a slightly stronger electrical current in order to alleviate pain. Find out more about the application of TENS. CES, on the other hand, is to stimulate …

Clinical Studies

There are numerous studies done on the topic of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) over the years. In a meta-analyses studies conducted by Dr Ray B. Smith, published in his book Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation – its First Fifty Years, Plus Three: A Monograph“, studies were done on the treatment of Insomnia, Depression, Anxiety, Drug Abstinence, and Cognitive Dysfunction, an average of 44 – 62% improvement was observed across the categories.

Syndrome StudiedNo. of StudiesNo. of SubjectsAvg. Improvement
Drug Abstinence1553560%
Cognitive Dysfunction1364844%
Summary Table from CES – It’s first 50 years, Plus 3 by Dr. Ray B. Smith. Pg. 17. 2007

CES for Insomnia, Anxiety and Depression

In many countries, CES provides clinical treatment for insomnia, anxiety, and depression. However, CES can also be used for home use for non-clinical conditions, as the devices are generally simple and safe to operate, and require very little supervision. This is especially useful for improving general mental well-being.

Diagram Extracted from CES Article by Dave Siever, MindAlive

CES Working Principle

There were many theories on the mechanism of how CES works. In the most widely accepted explanation, alternating current acts directly on the brain by inducing polarisation of the nervous cellular state through alternating current. During rest, our cells are in a resting state with a membrane potential of approximately -70 mV. Cells in an abnormal state may experience a drop in membrane potential, resulting in reduced functionality and abnormal neurochemical release and interaction. The polarisation stimulation results in a redistribution of ions between the internal and external membranes of the cells, restoring cellular potential. For more information about nerve cell membrane electrical potential, please refer to Neuroscience, 2nd edition.

CES Devices

CES technology may also be used in conjunction with brainwave technology to enhance the overall experience (i.e. DAVID Delight Pro)

Check out MindAlive Audio-Visual Brainwave Entrainment system with integrated CES technology